Chapter 8* refers to the Chapter in our Urdu Grammar Workbook for Beginners
Today we will have a look at the first tense in our Urdu Blog – the present simple tense. This tense is used to talk about routine activities, e.g. what you do every day, every week, often etc. E.g. I wake up at 7am and then have breakfast is an example of a sentence in the present simple tense. This tense is also used in a few other cases, which we will look at at the end.
But first, let’s get started and learn how to form the present simple tense of any verb in Urdu.
How to form the present simple tense from any verb
STEP 1: Choose your verb and identify its infinitive. In Urdu all infinitives end in “na”.
STEP 2: Delete the ending „na“ to get the verbs ROOT form
STEP 3: Add the correct ending to the root form.
|male, singular people/objects||Ta||تا|
|female, singular people/objects||Ti||تی|
|male, plural people/objects||Te||تے|
|female, plural people/objects||Tin (with nasalization)||تیں|
|e.g. he goes||for male, singular people/objects||Jata||جاتا|
|e.g. she goes||female, singular people/objects||Jati||جاتی|
|e.g. they (all male) go||male, plural people/objects||Jate||جاتے|
|e.g. they (all female) go||female, plural people/objects||Jatin||جاتیں|
STEP 4: Add the pronoun & correct form of to be „hona“ ہونا
|I am||Me… hun||میں……… ہوں|
|He/she/it is||Wo/ye… hai.||وہ/ یہ ………. ہے۔|
|You (informal) are||Tu ….hai.||تو ………… ہے۔|
|We are||Ham ….. hain.||ہم ………….. ہیں۔|
|You (plural and respected) are||Ap… hain.||آپ …………. ہیں۔|
|They are||Wo/ye…. Hain.||وہ/ یہ ……….. ہیں۔|
|You (singular) are.||Tum… ho.||تم ……………. ہو۔|
When we put all the steps together, it looks like this:
|I work (male).||Mai kam karta hun||میں کام کرتا ہوں۔|
|I work (female)||Mai kam karti hun.||میں کام کرتی ہوں۔|
|You work (singular or plural)||Ap kam karte hain.||آپ کام کرتے ہیں۔|
|He/She works.||Wo kam karte hai.||وہ کام کرتی ہے۔|
|They (female or male) work.||Ye kam karte hain.||یہ کام کرتے ہیں۔|
|You (singular, informal) work||Tum kam karte ho.||تم کام کرتے ہو۔|
Use No 1: Routine Activities
Now that you know how to make the form, let’s have a look at exactly how to use the present simple. There are three uses. I already mentioned the first one in the introduction: for routine activites. This is also the most common use and the easiest.
Here are a few example sentences.
|I have breakfast at 8am. (male speaker)||Mai 8 baje nashta karta hun.||میں 8 بجے ناشتہ کرتا ہوں۔|
|You work from 9-5. (for singular and plural)||Ap 9 baje se 5 baje tak kam karte hai.||آپ 9بجے سے 5بجے تک کام کرتے ہیں۔|
|They drink chai every day. (for a group of males)||Wo roz chai pite hai.||وہ روز چائے پیتے ہیں۔|
Use No 2: Common facts/ statements
You can also use this tense for common facts and statements. This means this that are usually true and (most likely) won’t change at all (or not that quickly).
|The earth is round.||Duniya gol hai||دنیا گول ہے۔|
|Islamabad is in Pakistan||Islamabad paksitan main hai.||اسلام آباد پاکستان میں ہے۔|
|Fish live in lakes and rivers.||Machliya jhilon aur deriyaun main rehti hain.||مچھلیاں جھیلوں اور دریا ؤں میں رہتی ہیں۔|
|In the UK, all children go to school.||UK main tamam bache school jate hai||یوکے میں تمام بچے اسکول جاتے ہیں۔|
Use No 3: Immenent actions
And lastly, the present simple tense can also be used for imminent actions. This means for actions that are about to happen. This is very often used in spoken Urdu. If you want to sound like a native speaker, then make sure to use this in your daily speech. Let’s have a look at some examples:
| (on the phone) |
A: Where are you?
B: I will be there in 5 minutes.
Ap kaha hain?
Mai 5 minute mai ata hun.
| آپ کہاں ہے؟ |
میں ۵ منٹ میں آتا ہوں۔
In this situation, two people are on the phone and the first speaker is asking the second where he/she is. The second speaker is about to arrive and therefore uses the present simple tense (mai 5 minute mai ata hun), instead of the future. Literally it would be translated as “In 5 minutes I arrive”. In English, we would say “I am arriving” or “I will arrive” instead.
Let’s look at one more example:
|A: Can you send this email now? B: Yes, I will send it now.|| Ap ye email abhi send karen. |
Ji, abhi karti hun.
|آپ یہ ای میل ابھی سینڈ کریں۔ جی، ابھی کرتی ہوں۔|
In this situation the first speaker is asking somebody to send an email right now. The second speaker responds that he/she will do it right now. Again, this is an imminent action, because the speaker is about to send the email. In Urdu, the present simple tense (“karti hun”) is used. The literal translation would be: Yes, I now do. This sounds pretty strange in English, as we would use the future (I will do that now) or progressive tense (I am doing that now) instead. In Urdu, however, this is what native speakers would use.
Okay, this brings us to the end of today’s lesson. As always, you can find activities to practice this in our Urdu Workbook. It is available in print right here, on Kindle, or as online activities right here.
Please leave any questions or comments you may have below.